Saturday, October 11, 2008


Yumen is a city in western Gansu province in China.

It is a county-level city with a population of 116,194 . Administratively, it is part of Jiuquan "prefecture-level city" . It is located on the Silk Road and is best known for its oil production.

It is not the same place as the famous Yumen Guan or Jade Gate frontier-pass of ancient times, the entrance to the old Silk Roads, which was situated not far to the west of Dunhuang. Although both Yumen City and Yumen Gate are withun Jiuquan, the latter is some 400 km to the west from the former.

Linxia City

, once known as Hezhou , is a county-level city in the province of Gansu of the People's Republic of China. Population 285,000. It is located in the valley of the Daxia River southwest of Lanzhou. It is the seat of Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, which is the centre of the ethnic minority of the .

Linxia has a Muslim majority. It is the main center of the Qadariyah Sufi order. It has long been the center of the Muslim community of Gansu, and even today it is sometimes referred to as "the Mecca of China".



Lanzhou is a prefecture-level city and capital of Gansu in northwestern China.


Originally in the territory of the Western Qiang peoples, Lanzhou became part of the territory of in the 6th century BC.

In 81 BC, under the Han dynasty , it became the seat of Jincheng county and later of Jincheng commandery , the county being renamed Yunwu. The city used to be called the Golden City, and since at least the first millennium BC it was a major link on the ancient Northern Silk Road, and also an important historic Yellow River crossing site. To protect the city, the Great Wall of China was extended as far as Yumen.

After the fall of the Han Dynasty, Lanzhou became the capital of a succession of tribal states. Mixed with different cultural heritages, the area at present-day Gansu province, from the 5th to the 11th century, became a center for study. In the 4th century it was briefly the capital of the independent state of Earlier Liang. The Northern Wei dynasty reestablished Jincheng commandery, renaming the county Zicheng. Under the Sui Dynasty the city became the seat of Lanzhou prefecture for the first time, retaining this name under the Tang Dynasty . In 763 the area was overrun by the Tibetans and was then recovered by the in 843. Later it fell into the hands of the Western Xia Dynasty and was subsequently recovered by the Song Dynasty in 1041. The name Lanzhou was reestablished, and the county renamed Lanzhuan.

After 1127 it fell into the hands of the , and after 1235 it came into the possession of the Mongols.

Under the Ming Dynasty the prefecture was demoted to a county and placed under the administration of Lintao superior prefecture, but in 1477 Lanzhou was reestablished as a political unit.

The city acquired its current name in 1656, during the Qing Dynasty. When Gansu became a separate province in 1666, Lanzhou became its capital.

In 1739 the seat of Lintao was transferred to Lanzhou, which was later made a superior prefecture called Lanzhou.

Lanzhou was badly damaged during the rising of the Gansu Muslims in 1864–1875. In the 1920s and 1930s it became a center of influence in northwestern China. During the Lanzhou, linked with Xi'an by highway in 1935, became the terminus of the 3,200 km Chinese-Soviet highway, used as a route for Soviet supplies destined for the Xi'an area. This highway remained the primary traffic route of northwestern China until the completion of the railway from Lanzhou to Urumqi, Xinjiang. During the war Lanzhou was heavily bombed by the Japanese.

The city is the seat of a currently vacant Roman Catholic diocese and was previously the center of a vicariate apostolic .


*Area: 14,620 km?
*Elevation: 1,600 m above sea level
* geographical center
*More than 20 km along urban corridor along the southern banks of the Yellow River.
*Zonary basin
*Location of mountains, located on the south and north sides of the city:
**Qilian Ranges, Mt. Pingliang and Mt. Kongtong
**The Yellow River flows through from west to east.

Lanzhou is situated on the upper course of the Yellow River, where the river emerges from the mountains. It has been a center since early times, being at the southern end of the route leading via the Hexi Corridor across Central Asia. It also commands the approaches to the ancient capital area of Chang'an in Shaanxi province from both the west and the northwest, as well as from the area of Qinghai Lake via the upper waters of the Yellow River and its tributaries.

Climate and environment

Lanzhou is situated in the temperate zone and enjoys a semi-dry climate.

In regard to air pollution Lanzhou has some of the worst air quality of all cities in China. According to the Blacksmith Institute, Lanzhou is one of the 30 most polluted cities in the world. The air quality is so poor that at times one can not see Lanshan, the mountain rising straight up along the south side of the city. The city is located in a narrow river valley with an unfortunate curve causing it to be hemmed in with no free air flow. Lanzhou is also the home of many factories, including some involved in petroleum processing, and suffers from large dust storms kicked up from the Gobi Desert, especially in the winter and spring.

The reach of the Yellow River at Lanzhou carries a high load of silt, giving the river its characteristic muddy appearance; however water quality in this reach is better than the "fetid outflow that barely passes for water two hours downstream".



Since 1949 Lanzhou has been transformed from the capital of a poverty-stricken province into the center of a major area. The GDP per capita of Lanzhou was 22,243 yuan in 2007, ranked no. 134 among 659 Chinese cities.

Natural resources

*Minerals: coal, gold, silver, zinc, nickel, manganese, clay, and dolomite

There is a thermal generating plant supplied with coal from fields in Qinghai. In addition, there is a hydroelectric station at Zhulama Gorge in Gansu, and a large multipurpose dam has been built in the Liujia Gorge on the Yellow River above Lanzhou.


Main industries include textile mills, rubber, fertilizer plants, oil refinery, petrochemical, machinery, and industry.

Gansu has one of the largest oil refineries in the country and Lanzhou itself is the center of the province's petrochemical industry. Lanzhou has a large refinery linked to the fields at Yumen by pipeline. It also manufactures equipment for the oil industry.

Lanzhou has a large textile industry, particularly noted for the production of woolens and leather goods. In addition, Lanzhou produces locomotives and rolling stock for the northwestern railways, as well as machine tools and mining equipment. Aluminum products, industrial chemicals, and fertilizers are produced on a large scale, and there is a large rubber industry. Copper is mined in nearby Gaolan.

Lanzhou has been one of the centers of China's national atomic energy industry since the 1960s.

Industrial zones:

* Lanzhou Economic and Technological Development Zone
* Lanzhou High-tech Industrial Development Zone


Lanzhou is the collecting center and market for agricultural produce and livestock from a wide area.

*Spring wheat, vegetables, beans, oil-boiling, melon, peaches, and tobacco
*Roses and


*Airlines: Lanzhou Airport serves as the main airport and is located 70 km north of Lanzhou. Flights from more than 20 cities depart and arrive at the airport.
*Railroad: linked to Beijing, Shanghai, ?rümqi and Baotou
**Lanzhou-Xinjiang Railway: linked to Xinjiang destinations only
*Highways: linked to neighboring provinces
*Bus services: serves local and provincial areas

Lanzhou is a regional rail, highway, and air hub in and the junction point to Xinjiang. The Longhai Railway line was extended westward to Lanzhou from Tianshui by 1953. Later Lanzhou was linked with Beijing via Baotou in Inner Mongolia, and lines have also been constructed northwest to Urumqi and westward via Haiyan on Qinghai Lake to Golmud .

Places of interest

*Bingling Temple, Yongjing
*Gansu Provincial Museum
*Wuquan Mountain
*Baita Mountain
*Xinglong Mountain
*Lutusi ancient government


Lanzhou Radio serves the Lhasa and Lanzhou province regions with news and music.


The city is the cultural centre of Gansu.

*Chinese opera: Qinqiang Drama
*: Lanzhou beef lamian noodles

Colleges and universities

The city is the seat of Lanzhou University, founded in 1909. The National Minorities Institute at Lanzhou and a number of scientific institutes are also located there.In particular, Northwest Normal University has been the key university at the provincial level, which has prepared over 100,000 teachers in schools across the province Gansu.


''Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor's degree programs are not listed.''

National level

*Lanzhou University , founded 1909

Other public institutions

*Northwest Nationalities University
*Eastern Gansu University
*Gansu Institute of Administration
*Northwest Normal University , founded 1902
*Lanzhou University of Technology , founded 1919
*Lanzhou Jiaotong University , founded 1958
*Gansu Agricultural University , founded 1958
*Lanzhou Medical College
*Gansu College of Traditional Chinese Medicine
*Lanzhou Commercial College
*Gansu Political Science and Law Institute

Sister cities

of Lanzhou are:
* Albuquerque, United States
* Akita, Akita, Japan
* Christchurch, New Zealand


Jiuquan is a "prefecture-level city" in the westernmost part of the Gansu province in China.

The entire "prefecture-level city" stretches for more than 500 km from east to west, occupying 191,342 km?; its population as of 2002 was 962,000.

The city's name came from legendary tale of the young general Huo Qubing, who poured a jar of precious wine into a local creek in order to share the taste with his troops, in celebration of their crushing victory against Xiongnu forces. The creek was later named Jiu Quan , which became the name of the Han prefecture established there. It was an active military garrison during the Later Han Dynasty.

It is known in popular legend as the place where rhubarb was first grown and is also the town where the Portuguese Jesuit missionary and explorer Bento de Góis was robbed and died destitute.

Suzhou town

The administrative center of the "prefecture-level city" of Jiuquan is the "" of Suzhou , which occupies 3,386 square km in the eastern part of Jiuquan "prefecture-level city", and had the population of 340,000 as of 2002.
It is there where the modern mapmakers would usually place the "Jiuquan" label.

There is a large billboard at the entrance to the city that read: "Without Haste, Without Fear, We Conquer the World".

The District of Suzhou corresponds to the historic town of Suzhou .
It was founded in 111 BC as a military outpost on the Silk Road to Central Asia . It is approximately 1500 m above sea level.

Being an important key point in the Hexi Corridor, Suzhou often found itself to be a defended fortress, taken with a heavy loss of life,
as was the case when Meng Qiaofang took it from Ding Guodong in 1649, or when the general Zuo Zongtang took it in 1873 from its defenders commanded by Ma Wenlu during the Muslim Rebellion.

Other towns within Jiuquan "prefecture-level city"

Besides Suzhou, other towns within Jiuquan include Yumen and Dunhuang.

The space launch center

Jiuquan city is the closest major city to the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center. Still, the space launch center is more than 100 km away from the city, and is actually located not Gansu province, but in the neighboring Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. It was built in 1958; the first Chinese human spaceflight, ''Shenzhou 5'' was launched there on 15 October 2003, making Yang Lingwei China's first cosmonaut and a national hero. The second was in 2005.

Jiayuguan (city)

Jiayuguan is a prefecture-level city in Gansu, China, with a population of 127,532 as of 2007. It is most famous for the nearby Jiayu Pass, the largest and most intact pass of the Great Wall of China.


Hezuo is the administrative seat of the Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in southern Gansu Province, China. It is home to the Hezuo Monastery and its Milarepa Tower, the Langshangmaio Temple, and a mosque. There is a breed of pig, the Hezuo Swine, from here also.